Tropical Storm Danielle was the fourth named storm of the 1992 Atlantic hurricane season. Danielle developed on September 22 while located southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cyclone quickly attained tropical storm status, and ultimately made landfall along the Delmarva Peninsula before dissipating on September 26. Danielle was the first Atlantic tropical cyclone to make landfall along the Delmarva Peninsula since Tropical Storm Bret in 1981.
Danielle caused no known damage, but caused two fatalities.
|Formation||September 22, 1992|
|Dissipation||September 26, 1992|
|Highest winds||65 mph|
|Lowest pressure||1001 mbar|
|Areas affected||North Carolina, Mid-Atlantic region, New Jersey|
|Part of the||1992 Atlantic hurricane season|
Danielle originated from a weak surface trough as well as an area of convection that had persisted over the Atlantic Ocean near the southeastern United States since September 18. During the day on September 18, it is assumed that a tropical wave entered the aforementioned area of convective activity. On September 20, a cold front merged with the northern portion of this stationary area of disturbed weather. By September 22, the system had developed a closed surface circulation as well as deep convection near the center. Thus, it was classified as Tropical Depression Six at 1200 UTC September 22 while located about 175 miles south-southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Several hours later, reconnaissance aircraft flew into the cyclone, and found that it had strengthened into Tropical Storm Danielle. Danielle moved quickly to the northeast, under the influence of an approaching mid-latitude trough. However, the trough bypassed Danielle, and a ridge of high pressure built to the north of the cyclone, which caused Danielle to execute a small clockwise loop on September 23 and 24, followed by a westward motion towards the Outer Banks of North Carolina on September 25. Danielle soon turned to the north, however, as an extratropical cyclone approached the Great Lakes, and as a high pressure ridge built in to the east of the tropical cyclone. As Danielle approached the coast of the Delmarva Peninsula, it strengthened to reach its peak of 65 mph along with a pressure of 1001 mb.
Late on September 25, Danielle made landfall in Maryland, along the Delmarva Peninsula. After landfall, Danielle quickly weakened as it tracked across Maryland and Delaware as well as eastern Pennsylvania. It dissipated on September 26 over eastern Pennsylvania.
Danielle consistently had a difficult to predict track. As a result, a Tropical Storm Warning was issued for the coast of North Carolina on September 24, 36 hours before Danielle passed east of the state. Danielle's continued, as well as unexpected, northward motion caught forecasters off guard. Because of this, Tropical Storm Warnings were not issued for the Delmarva Peninsula until just 12 hours before the cyclone made landfall. As a precaution, a Tropical Storm Warning was issued from Delaware to Watch Hill, Rhode Island.
In North Carolina, ferry services between Ocracoke Island and the mainland at Hyde County were closed. In addition to this, officials closed schools in Dare County. Also, several families voluntarily evacuated from St. Mary's County, Maryland. In addition, officials in Delaware issued evacuations for low-lying areas and beaches. As a consequence, two shelters were set up in Kent County.
In North Carolina, where Danielle was initially forecast to make landfall, strong winds occurred, due to a strong pressure gradient between Danielle and a high pressure ridge to the north. The winds were as high as 58 mph at Alligator River Bridge. In addition, several other locations experienced sustained winds of tropical storm force. The pressure gradient also produced high waves along the coast, reaching 20 feet at Duck. In spite of passing dangerously close to the coast, Danielle only produced light rainfall, reaching 0.2 inches at Cape Hatteras, although some locations in the central portion of the state reported over an inch of rain from the cyclone. Danielle produced some storm surge along the Pamlico Sound side of Ocracoke as well as Hatteras Island, which caused flooding. The storm surge also produced overwash at Pea Island, which forced the closure of State Highway 17 due to a foot of saltwater. High tides from Danielle also destroyed two homes in South Nags Head as well as one in Rodanthe, two of which were previously condemned after the 1991 Halloween Nor'easter. Three other homes along the Outer Banks were threatened by Danielle. Elsewhere along the Outer Banks, damage was minimal and was confined to pedestrian ramps as well as steps to the beachfront.
Danielle produced a peak wind gust of 61 mph at Fort Henry, although sustained winds were below tropical storm force. Rainfall was light along the coast, reaching only 0.34 inches. Danielle produced heavier rainfall further inland across the state, however, namely along the central portion of the state, peaking at 4.09 inches at Charlottesville. Danielle also produced a minor storm surge in the state, reaching 4.42 feet at the mouth of the Elizabeth River at Sewells Point. In addition, the cyclone produced some high waves along the coast of Virginia. The waves caused significant overwash, which left some portions of Norfolk underneath 2 feet of water. The storm also flooded several automobiles, homes, as well as businesses. Finally, Danielle produced some beach erosion along the coast. Damage was minimal, and no fatalities or injuries were reported in the state in association with Danielle.
In Maryland, where Danielle made landfall, a storm surge of 2 to 3 feet occurred in Ocean City, along with wind gusts as high as 53 mph. In addition, the cyclone produced rainfall of up to 3 inches along the eastern shore of the state, while interior locations received slightly less rainfall from the cyclone, reaching 2.79 inches at Pasadena. Danielle produced minor to moderate beach erosion along the coast, and the combination of high waves as well as storm surge caused some street flooding. Near Salisbury, Danielle produced a possible hook echo on radar, although no tornadoes were reported in association with this hook echo. There were no reported fatalities or injuries in Maryland due to Danielle.
In Delaware, Danielle produced light rainfall, reaching 3.75 inches at Smyrna. Wind gusts reached 66 mph at Cape Henlopen. In addition, Danielle produced a storm surge of 2 to 3 feet, along with high waves. The combination of high waves as well as storm surge caused flooding in several coastal homes, and also caused significant beach as well as dune erosion. In addition, the waves sank four boats and washed away a dock near Slaughter Beach. In addition, power outages occurred in New Castle County, while persistent rainfall from the cyclone interrupted the sewers. Total damage was minimal, save for the beach erosion that occurred. ewww child things will get easier.....eww child thingsll get brighter
Northeastern United States
Danielle produced light rainfall in New Jersey, with some locations in the southwestern portion of the state receiving over 3 inches of rain from the storm. High waves from the cyclone washed out miles of beach along the coast. In Ocean City, waves passed over the boardwalk and into some homes. Further north, waves produced by Danielle crashed a four person, 35 foot sailboat near Island Beach State Park. Two of the people within the boat managed to swim safely back to shore, although the other two occupants drowned.
Danielle also produced light rainfall from Connecticut to Maine, with isolated locations in Rhode Island and Massachusetts reporting over 3 inches of rain from the storm. Total damage in New England from Danielle is unknown.
Lack of Retirement
Because it did not cause significant damage, the name Danielle was not retired in the Spring of 1993 by the World Meteorological Organization. It has since been used during the 1998 season as well as the 2004 season, and will be used again during the 2010 season.