Tropical Storm Arthur was the first named storm of the 1990 Atlantic hurricane season. Arthur developed on July 22 in the open Atlantic Ocean well to the east of the Windward Islands. Arthur was a low-latitude tropical cyclone for the greater part of its life, but it gradually gained latitude as it headed west-northwest. Arthur nearly attained hurricane status, but dissipated on July 27 while located just east of the island of Jamaica.
Arthur caused no damage and no deaths.
|Formation||July 22, 1990|
|Dissipation||July 27, 1990|
|Highest winds||70 mph|
|Lowest pressure||995 mbar|
|Part of the||1990 Atlantic hurricane season|
Arthur developed from a tropical wave that emerged off the coast of Africa on July 18, accompanied by deep convection as it moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean at the low latitude of 10°N. On July 22, as the wave neared 43°W longitude, it was well enough organized to be classified as Tropical Depression Two while located well east of the Windward Islands. After forming, the cyclone moved generally westward with little change in strength. On July 24, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Arthur while located about 250 miles east of Trinidad, based on reconnaissance aircraft data, along with satellite imagery, which revealed that the cyclone's convection was increasing, and banding features were developing. Early on July 25, Arthur passed over the Windward Islands. Subsequently, the cyclone began to turn to the northwest due to the influence of an upper-level trough that was located over the north-central Carribean Sea. During this time, Arthur nearly became a hurricane, with maximum sustained winds reaching 70 mph. On July 26, Arthur began weakening due to strong vertical wind shear, and as a result of the weakening, the cyclone began to move westward in the low-level easterly flow. On July 27, while located about 100 miles south of Hispaniola, Arthur weakened to a tropical depression. Deep convection temporarily re-fired near Arthur's low-level center, but despite this, data from a reconnaissance aircraft along with satellite imagery indicated that Arthur degenerated into an open tropical wave late on July 27.
Approximately 10 to 16 hours before the arrival of Arthur in the Windward Islands, a Tropical Storm Warning was issued for the islands. In addition, Tropical Storm Watches were posted for Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Hispaniola. In addition, a Tropical Storm Warning was issued for the coast of Haiti on July 27. The watches and warnings turned out to be unnecessary, but were inevitable under the circumstances.
Although there were no official reports of sustained tropical storm force winds in association with Arthur, sustained winds of 37 kt were reported on Trinidad for several minutes during a phone call to the National Hurricane Center.
Lack of Retirement
Because there was minimal, if any damage, the name Arthur was not retired in the Spring of 1991 by the World Meteorological Organization. It is on the list of names to be used for the 2014 Atlantic hurricane season.