Hurricane Floyd was the sixth named storm and second hurricane of the 1993 Atlantic hurricane season. Floyd formed on September 7 in the Atlantic Ocean well to the north of Puerto Rico. Floyd moved northwest, quickly attaining tropical storm status. It then moved northeast and then east, recurving out to sea. Floyd attained hurricane status while south of Atlantic Canada. Floyd became extratropical on September 10. Floyd reached Brittany, France on September 13 as an extratropical cyclone with winds of 80 mph.
|Formation||September 7, 1993|
|Dissipation||September 10, 1993|
|Highest winds||75 mph|
|Lowest pressure||990 mbar|
|Part of the||1993 Atlantic hurricane season|
On August 28, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa. The wave was accompanied by relatively large low-level pressure falls. Inland surface reports from Dakar, Senegal as well as observations from several ships, indicate that the wave was also accompanied by a well-defined low-level circulation as well as a 1009 mb low pressure system on August 28 and 29. Satellite imagery indicates that the wave moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean for about a week, with deep convection periodically developing within the vicinity of the wave. On August 29, the first Dvorak classifications were taken on the wave, although by late on August 31, the wave became too weak to classify using the Dvorak technique, due to convection almost completely disappearing. On September 3, deep convection redeveloped about 500 miles east of the Leeward Islands, but significant strengthening was prohibited due to strong southwesterly vertical shear. The wave then began to gradually move to the northwest, becoming better organized as it did so. On September 6, reconnaissance aircraft indicated the wave had a broad 1011 mb surface low pressure area along with a weak low-level circulation about 150 miles to the north of the Virgin Islands. On September 7, another flight into the wave by reconnaissance aircraft found that the pressure associated with the wave had dropped to 1008 mb within a small low-level circulation associated with persistent convection. That afternoon, 1,500 foot flight-level winds of 58 knots were measured by the aircraft. Due to these observations from the aircraft, it is estimated that the wave developed into Tropical Depression Seven on the morning of September 7 while located well to the north of Puerto Rico.
After forming, the depression became Tropical Storm Floyd on the afternoon of September 7. Floyd quickly became embedded within the fast flow between a strong large-scale trough approaching the storm from the northwest, as well as a subtropical ridge to the east. The associated steering flow accelerated Floyd to the north at about 20 knots. On September 8, Floyd passed about 200 miles west of the island of Bermuda. Due to strong upper-level southwesterly wind shear, Floyd was not able to strengthen significantly. In fact, by midday on September 8, the last flight into the system by reconnaissance aircraft indicated that the cyclone's central pressure rose to 1012 mb. Floyd still appeared sheared on the final visible satellite images of September 8, with a low-level circulation center appearing poorly-defined on the southwestern edge of the deep convection. Despite the disorganized nature of the storm, Floyd underwent changes during the overnight hours that caused it to intensify. By the morning of September 9, Floyd's low-level circulation was no longer exposed, but was estimated to be underneath the Central Dense Overcast. The cyclone was moving northeast at a very fast foward speed of 35 knots near the eastern end of the ribbon of warm Gulf Stream waters. Beginning near 1500 UTC September 9, satellite imagery occasionally showed a warm spot near the center that could have been indicative of an eye. At 2000 UTC, Floyd passed about 40 miles northwest of Canadian buoy 44141. The buoy reported a pressure of 998 mb, water temperatures of 27.1°C, along with two-minute sustained winds of 70 mph during the hour ending at 2000 UTC.
Based on this, as well as the fact that hurricane force winds likely occured elsewhere closer to the center, and also due to the hint of an eye on satellite imagery, it is estimated that Floyd became a hurricane at 1800 UTC September 9. Late on September 9 and early on September 10, Floyd's foward speed continued to increase, and the cyclone was moving at nearly 45 knots when it began to lose tropical characteristics over 19°C water temperatures. On September 10, deep convection associated with Floyd diminished, and, as the day progressed, became displaced further northeast of the low-level circulation center. Ship reports indicated that the wind field was expanding to the south of the center. At 1800 UTC September 10, Floyd it is estimated to have become an extratropical cyclone with 75 mph winds. Over the next two days, Floyd's extratropical remnants decelerated and moved eastward. On September 11, the cyclone began to strengthen once again, and it made landfall near Brittany, France early on September 13 with a pressure of 966 mb and sustained winds of 80 mph.
Lack of Retirement
Because it did not affect land as a tropical cyclone, the name Floyd was not retired in the Spring of 1994 by the World Meteorological Organization. It was used in 1999 and retired after that year by the WMO, and was replaced with Franklin, which was used in 2005.