Hurricane Florence was the sixth named storm and second hurricane of the 1994 Atlantic hurricane season. Florence formed on November 2 in the open Atlantic Ocean well away from any land. Florence ultimately recurved out to sea and peaked as a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 110 mph, just under major hurricane status. Florence was absorbed by a cold front on November 8.
Florence caused no damage and no deaths.
|Formation||November 2, 1994|
|Dissipation||November 8, 1994|
|Highest winds||110 mph|
|Lowest pressure||972 mbar|
|Part of the||1994 Atlantic hurricane season|
Florence developed from a low pressure system that formed at the end of October along a stationary frontal band about 1000 miles east-southeast of Bermuda. The low gradually developed a surface circulation when the portion of the front in its vicinity dissipated during the first day of November. On November 2, a curved band of deep convection developed to the north through the northeast of the low. Ship reports at that time indicate that the system's strongest winds were associated with a band well away from the circulation center, namely 200 miles northeast of the center. Based on this, it is assumed that the system developed into a subtropical cyclone at 0000 UTC November 2. The aforementioned band well removed from the circulation center weakened on November 3 and ship reports indicate that maximum sustained surface winds associated with the cyclone weakened to 35 mph. However, at the same time, deep convection became more concentrated near the circulation center and the system became Tropical Storm Florence due to this. After forming, Florence moved to the northwest at a foward speed of about 8 knots before turning northward with a decrease in foward speed on November 6. Although upper-level outflow was restricted to the south, Florence strengthened. Satellite imagery revealed a partial eye around 1700 UTC November 4, and it is estimated that Florence attained hurricane status at this time.
Although the eye was occasionally discernable on satellite imagery, Florence changed little in strength for the next three days. When Florence reached its westernmost point around 0600 UTC November 7, it was located 700 miles east of Bermuda. At that point, Florence had become nearly stationary. It turned northeast and accelerated in reponse to a large and powerful cold front that approached from the Canadian Maritimes. Just 24 to 30 hours later, Florence was accelerating to the northeast at a very fast foward speed of nearly 50 mph. A well-defined eye surrounded by moderately deep convection was seen on satellite imagery on November 7, and Florence estimated to have reached its peak intensity of 110 mph along with a pressure of 972 mb around 0000 UTC November 8. Florence was located in a narrowing sector of warm air between the aforementioned cold front to the northwest as well as another storm to the northeast. Florence's eye expanded from about 20 miles to about 30 to 35 miles in diameter. The eye remained distinct until around 1800 UTC that same day, when Florence began moving over water temperatures cooler than 20°C. Florence became absorbed by the aforementioned cold front to its northwest.
Lack of Retirement
Because it affected no land areas, the name Florence was not retired in the Spring of 1995 by the World Meteorological Organization. It was used during the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season and also during the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. It is on the list of names to be used for the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season.